||Introduction to Swedish© by Urban Sikeborg, Stockholm (1997-98)|
To compare & to be compared
|Home | Chap. 1 | Chap. 2 | Chap. 6 | Chap. 4 | Chap. 5 | Chap. 7 | Chap. 8 | Chap. 9 ||
|On this page|| Comparison of
Sentences to study
Irregular comparative forms
Some useful pronouns: Nobody, somebody, everybody, another
Adverbs the 'how/when/where' words
|Comparison of adjectives||It is very
easy to compare things in Swedish, almost as easy as it
is in English: You just add a special ending to show that
something is not just good but better, or even the best:
Unlike the basic form, which changes depending on gender and number, the comparative has only this form. That is also true for the superlative, with the exception of when the adjective is preceded by an "identifying" word (like this, that, my); the ending -ast will then receive an extra -e.
Like in English, some adjectives prefer or even require the words mer (more) or mest (most) instead, to show that they are in the comparative or superlative form. To this group belong all adjectives ending in -isk, which cannot take the endings -are and -ast, and some longer adjectives, none of them very frequent, though.
Since the adjective itself remains its basic form when it is combinated with mer and most, it will change like any other adjective, depending on if it is referring to an en word, an ett word, or a word in the plural (cp. Chapter 5).
In colloquial Swedish many adjectives are often combined with the word 'jä´tte' (which literally means 'giant') to add emphasis:
'jä´ttestór' - very
| Din bil
är vérkligen mýcket ful, men den är
ínte fúlare än min.
Your car is really very ugly, but it is not uglier than mine.
|Some of the
most common adjectives have irregular forms in the
comparative and the superlative. These irregularities
consist mainly of a change of vowel, sometimes also a
reduced length of vowel. Even though the endings differ
from the chart above, they are throughout the same: -re
in the comparative, -st and -sta in the
Due to the high
frequency of these adjectives, you would do well in
memorizing them before going any further, especially the
first four of them:
When denoting one male person the -sta in the definite form of the superlative is changed to -ste (this rule is often ignored in everyday spoken Swedish, though):
already are acquainted with the rules for using the
adjectives, you will have no problems in learning the
Swedish equivalents of the pronouns like
somebody/something - they follow a very
Every - várje
Várje, the word for every, has like its English relative only one form (for natural reasons there is no plural form):
|How, when, and where
descriptive word in English is linked to a verb - an
action word - or an adjective, instead of the
person or thing that does something, it usually receives
the ending -ly:
She is beautiful pianist. He is slow. You are amazing.
She plays beautifully. He walks slowly. You are amazingly clever.
These forms are called adverbs, and describe how, when, and where. In Swedish adverbs of this kind are identical to the ett word form of the adjective (with the ending -t), also in the comparative and superlative, which you have already met in the previous chapter:
Han går lå´ngsamt.
Hon spélar váckert.
Du är ótróligt
The comparison of such adverbs is in most cases identical to the comparison of adjectives with ett words:
There is also another type of adverbs,
which have the same function as the ones above, even
though they do not have a special ending. The word
answers the question when? and is therefore
an adverb. Hémma (at home) shows
where something takes place, while
sákta (another word for slowly)
defines how something is done. The English words
very and rather are also adverbs,
like their Swedish equivalents mýcke
Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, SE-113 83 Stockholm
Phone +46-8-736 90 00, Fax +46-8-31 81 86
This page was updated on 21 December 1998.