|Introduction to Swedish by Urban Sikeborg, Stockholm (1997-98)
  Chapter 7
Doing & being

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On this page What is a verb?
How to learn the Swedish verbs

The Swedish verb forms
The imperative
The infinitive
The present tense
The past
The supine and the past participle
The future tense

Passive and reflexive verbs
The passive
Reflexive verbs

The verb groups
Note on the verbs selected as examples
Group 1 (-ar verbs)
Group 2 A and 2 B (-er verbs)
Group 3 (-r verbs)
Group 4 (irregular verbs)


What is a
verb?
You have already met a few verbs in the previous chapters. Verbs are "doing-or-being words", words that show what is happening or what someone/something is or does: "I am", "It was raining", "They screemed".

In old Indo-European languages like Latin and Greek each verb could have a hundred different forms or more. One single verb could at the same time show when something happened, who did it or who did what to whom, whether the action was completed or not, and if it actually had happened at all. And all that just by adding a specific ending and/or slightly changing the stem of the verb.

In English and in Swedish there is fortunately very little left of this, even though English, in contrast to Swedish, in some cases still has a separate ending if it is a ‘he’, ‘she’, or ‘it’ doing something: "I sing" ("jag sjunger"), but "she sings" ("hon sjunger"). Instead of inflecting the verb, that is modifying it through a change of vowels or through various endings or other ways, these two languages - like many other modern languages - mainly use "helping" verbs (auxiliary verbs) to show the exact meaning of the verb:

I speak. I will speak. I have spoken.
Jag tlar. Jag ska tla. Jag har tlat.

The Swedish verb groups

Verbs are traditionally divided into groups, based on the time aspect, the ‘tense’, of the verb. (‘Tense’ is derived from the Latin word ‘tempus’, which means just ‘time’.) In the sentence "I spoke", the word ‘spoke’ is a past form of the verb ‘speak’, while "I will have spoken" points to an action that will have been completed sometime in the future. (Please note that not all forms of a verb carry this temporal meaning.)

The Swedish verb system is somewhat more complex than the English. Depending on which ending a verb takes in some tenses, it is referred to one of four groups. The fourth group consists of irregular verbs, of which many are very common. 


How to learn
the Swedish
verbs
To learn all or almost all possible variants of a Swedish verb you should in theory memorize five forms: the infinitive, the present, the past, the supine, and the past participle; if you know these you will be able to easily deduce the rest. Such memorizing is facilitated by the fact that most verbs follow an overall-pattern, but is still a rather dreary procedure on the whole.

There is an easier and more effective and entertaining way of learning the verb forms, though: By reading Swedish texts, newspaper articles, comic strips, and novels written in an everyday language (translations of Agatha Christie crime novels or love-stories by Barbara Cartland or whatever you personally prefer), you will soon meet all the common verbs - they are actually not that many - in a meaningful context, you will see their function in different sentences, how they are used in idiomatic phrases, and you will not have to spend time on the numerous verb forms that theoretically exist but are rarely used. The first pages of such a book in Swedish may naturally take some time to tackle, but it will not be long before you will be able to recognize and understand an amazingly large number of words. With a basic knowledge of the verb system in Swedish it will be even easier.


Swedish verb
forms:

The
imperative
The imperative expresses a command or an exhortation, that is you tell someone to do something: ‘Be quiet!’, ‘Come here!’, ‘Run!’. The imperative is the basic form of the verb in both English and Swedish. English uses this basic form also for the infinitive (see below), whereas the Swedish imperative is a unique form and therefore should be learned separately.

Swedish verb
forms:

The
infinitive
The infinitive is a ‘timeless’ form of the verb, the form given in the dictionaries. It is formed by adding an -a to the imperative (the main exception to this rule is when the basic form already ends in an -a; in such case no further ending is added). It is often used together with the word ‘att’, which usually has the same function as the English ‘to’ when it is combined with an infinitive:

Att vra ller [att] nte vra, det r frgan.
To be or not [to] be, that is the question.

Difference in use of the infinitive

In some cases English prefers or requires a verb with the ending -ing (e.g. after prepositions, that is "direction/position" words like ‘on’, ‘under’, ‘with’, ‘to’), where Swedish would use the infinitive:

I’m looking forward to [here used as a preposition] going to Stockholm.

Jag ser fram emt att rsa till Stckhlm.
I look forward towards to go/travel to Stockholm.

He has problems (with) getting up in the mornings.

Han har svrt att klva upp p mrgnarna.
He has difficult to step up on the mornings.


Swedish verb
forms:

The present
tense
A verb in the present tense is sometimes a bit carelessly described as referring to an action taking place now, but should more accurately be seen as showing an continuous action or state or a series of actions that is not completed, or something which someone usually do: "I play football" will most likely mean that you sometimes play football, or that you can or know how to play football, not necessarily that you are playing football at this very moment. To show that something is happening right now, English, by using an auxiliary verb and by adding the ending -ing to the main verb, has a special "progressive" form: "I am playing football". In Swedish there is strictly speaking only one form for the present that you will have to pay attention to, however, a form that almost always end in an -r.

The endings of the verbs in the present are, to be more specific:

  • Group 1: -ar (or -[a]r, since the a technically speaking is a part of the stem of the verb and not the ending)
  • Group 2A and 2B: -er
  • Group 3: -r
  • Group 4: The verbs in this often - but not always - end in -er and -r as well.

It may be comforting to know that the third group is quite small and only comprises a couple of the more frequent verbs.

Progressive expressions

The ‘on-going’ (progressive) -ing form in English can in Swedish often be expressed by adding an additional verb:

Jag splar ftbll. Jag hller p att spla ftbll.
I play football. I hold on (i.e.I am busy with) to play football.

Vi tttar p tv. Vi stter och tttar p tv.
We watch on TV. We sit and watch on TV.

Han lgar mat. Han str och lgar mat.
He cooks food. He stands and cooks food.

Hon sver. Hon lgger och sver.
She sleeps/is asleep. She lies and sleeps.

This way of showing that the action is progressive can also be used in other tenses in Swedish.


Swedish verb
forms:

The past
The past tense is used in different ways in different languages. In German, for instance, the perfect has assumed some of the function of the past ("Ich hab’ ihn gesehen" - "I saw him"). In Swiss German the past tense has been replaced entirely by the perfect. A Romance language like Spanish does not only focus on the time aspect of the verb when forming the past, but also on whether the action is seen as demarcated and completed (pretrito: "Grit" - "I shouted") or not completed, alternatively repeated (imperfecto: "Gritaba" - "I was shouting", "I shouted [several times]", "I began to shout" etc.). In spoken French the old preterite (pass simple) has disappeared in favour of the pass compos (resembling the German perfect), while the imperfect tense has a similar usage as in Spanish. In spite of its close relationship to German, the Swedish uses the past tense just about the same way as English, however.

The past is formed by adding the ending -de or -te to the basic form (the imperative); the -te ending is used after any of the voiceless consonants p, t, k, and s. (Some irregular verbs form the past by changing their vowel instead.)

Jag rbtade [basic form: arbeta] hrt frra vckan.
I worked/was working hard previous the week [i.e. last week].

Jag lste [basic form: ls] en ny bok vrje dag nder semstern.
I read a new book every day during the vacation.


Swedish verb
forms:

The supine
and the past
participle
I have closed the door.
The door is closed.

In these two sentences the word ‘closed’ is a form of the verb which in English is called the past participle. Combined with the auxiliary verb ‘have’ (as above) it forms the perfect tense, and with the same "help" verb in the past you have the past perfect (pluperfect) form: "I had closed the door."

‘Perfect’ is derived from a Latin word for ‘complete(d), finished’, which fairly well describes the primary function of the perfect tense, namely to show that a certain action or state is completed in relation to present time. That sounds more complicated than it is. The pluperfect refers to an action or state that was completed in relation to an event in the past "The door was [past] closed; he had closed [pluperfect] the door." The usage of the perfect and the pluperfect tenses is on the whole the same in English and Swedish.

Now, Swedish has actually two forms for the English past participle: The supine and the past participle.

The supine

The supine, which is made by adding a -t to the basic form (the imperative), is always used after the auxiliary verb ‘have’:

Jag har stngt drren.
I have closed the door.

The past participle

The past participle is composed by adding -d, -t, or -dd to the basic form (depending on the final letter). It is used like an adjective, and takes endings similar to the adjectives:
 

With an en word: Psten r stngd idg.
The post office is closed today.
With an ett word: Allt r stngt.
Everything is closed.
With a word in the plural: Till och med affrerna r stngda.
To and with (i.e. even) the shops/stores are closed.
After an identifying word: De ["dom"] stngda drrarna
The closed doors

Note

Some verbs exist only in compound forms in the past participle, often with a preposition (a 'direction' word: in, out, from, to etc.) as a prefix. The meaning of the verb is then also many times changed. See the list below, where the prefixes have been put within square brackets for the sake of clarity.


Swedish verb
forms:

The future
tense
English and Swedish have several ways to show that something will take place in the future, since they both lack a proper future tense.

Please note that the Swedish and English variants of the future are not synonymous, and that the chart below only gives a rough outline of the usage of the future in Swedish. It is not always easy to tell why one way of expressing a future action is favored instead of another. But since they all convey a clear future sense, you will not have any problems in making yourself understood, regardless of which variant you choose. 

  Future construction Swedish English
1 kmmer att + infinitive:

neutral, ‘pure’ future [very common]

Jag kmmer att studra.
I come to study.
I will study.
2 ska (formal: skall) + infinitive:

future (neutral, intention)

Jag ska studra.
I will study.
I am going to study.
3 tnker + infinitive:

showing intention

Jag tnker studra.
I think/intend [to] study.
I am going to study.
4 using the present tense:

future (neutral, intention) [very common]

Jag ker till Stckhlm nsta vcka.
I go to Stockholm next week.
I will go to Stockholm next week.

The passive All the verbs you have met so far have been active, that is someone or something is doing something. If you want to show that something is being done in English and the person who does it is either not identified or mentioned after the word ‘by’, you use a form of the verb ‘be’ together with the past participle:

The car has been repaired.
They were killed in an accident.
We have not been informed by anyone.

This passive construction is very simple to make in Swedish: You just add an -s to the other endings of the verb. The main exception is the present tense, where the final -r disappears before the -s.

Blen reparrades (instead of: Han reparrade blen).
The car was repaired. (He repaired the car.)

Sklan ska stngas (instead of: Rktorn ska stnga sklan).
The school is going to be closed. (The headmaster is going to close the school.)

In everyday Swedish an active construction is often preferred to the passive: "De ska stnga sklan" ("They are going to close the school"). It is also very common to use a construction with 'bli' (become) instead, without any significant change in meaning:

Blen blev reparrad.

Active verbs with a passive ending

There are a few verbs, which, in spite of having this -s form characteristic for the passive, always have an active function. Three of the most common are:

fnnas (to be, exist): "Finns det ngon mjlk kvar?" ("Is there any milk left?")
hppas (to hope): "Jag hppas det" ("I hope it", that is "I hope so.")
mnnas (to remember): "Jag minns nte" ("I remember not.")


Reflexive
verbs
In the sentence "I wash myself" English uses the pronoun ‘myself’ to show that the action is reflexive, that it is I who am the object of the washing. Some Swedish verbs are likewise used together with a special pronoun, which is identical with the objective forms of the personal pronouns (see chapter 1), with one exception: The reflexive pronoun for the persons ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, and ‘they’ is always ‘sig’ (in spite of its spelling pronounced like the English word 'say').
Jag tvttar mig (mej). I wash myself.
Du tvttar dig (dej). You wash yourself.
Han tvttar sig (sej). He washes himself.
Hon tvttar sig (sej). She washes herself.
Den/det tvttar sig (sej). It washes itself.
Vi tvttar oss. We wash ourselves.
Ni tvttar er. You wash yourselves.
De tvttar sig (sej). They wash themselves.

The use of verbs with reflexive pronouns is more frequent in Swedish than in English.


Note on
the verbs
selected
All the following verbs can be found in lists of the most common words in Swedish, based on the press from 1995 and 60 novels from 1980-81, compiled by Sprkbanken, Department of Swedish, Gteborg University:

http://spraakdata.gu.se/lb/konk/eng/index.html


Group 1
(-ar verbs)

 

Infinitive Imperative Present Past Supine Past participle
bertta
(to) tell
Bertta!
Tell!
berttar
(I) tell
berttade
(I) told
berttat
(I have) told
(r) berttad, berttat, berttade
(It is/they are) told
brka
(to) use/cultivate
Bruka!
Cultivate!
brkar
(I) use to/cultivate
brkade
(I) used to/cultivated
(har) brkat
(I have) used to/cultivated
(r) brkad, brkat, brkade 
(It is/they are) used/cultivated
brja
(to) begin
Brja!
Begin!
brjar
(I) begin
brjade
(I) began
(har) brjat
(I have) begun
(r) [p]brjad, [p]brjat, [p]brjade
(It is/they are) started
frga
(to) ask
Frga!
Ask!
frgar
(I) ask
frgade
(I) asked
frgat
(I have) asked
(r) [tll]frgad, [tll]frgat, [tll]frgade
(It is/they are) asked
klra
(to) manage
Klra (av det)!
Manage (it)!
klrar
(I) manage
klrade
(I) managed
klrat
(I have) managed
(r) [v]klrad, [v]klrat, [v]klrade
(It is/they are) taken care of
lmna
(to) leave
Lmna (den)!
Leave (it)!
lmnar
(I) leave
lmnade
(I) left
lmnat
(I have) left
(r) lmnad, lmnat, lmnade
(It is/they are) left
prta
(to) talk [colloquial]
Prta!
Talk!
prtar
(I) talk
prtade
(I) talked
prtat
(I have) talked
 
stnna
(to) stop
Stnna!
(Stop!)
stnnar
(I) stop
stnnade
(I) stopped
stnnat
(I have) stopped
(r) stnnad, stnnat, stnnade
(It is/they are) stopped [rarely used; replaced by the regular verb 'stoppa' (group 1) in the past participle]
tla
(to) speak, talk
Tla!
Speak!/Talk!
tlar
(I) speak/talk
tlade
(I) spoke/talked
tlat
(I have) spoken
[tll]tlad, [tll]tlat, [tll]tlade
(It is/they are) addressed
ttta
(to) look
Ttta!
Look!
tttar
(I) look
tttade
(I) looked
tttat
(I have) looked
(r) [t]tttad, [t]tttat, [t]tttade
(It i/they ares) stared at
ndra
(to) wonder
Undra!
Wonder!
ndrar
(I) wonder
ndrade
(I) wondered
ndrat
(I have) wondered
(r) [fr]ndrad, [fr]ndrat, [fr]ndrade
(It is/they are) wondered
vsa
(to) show
Vsa!
Show!
vsar
(I) show
vsade
(I) showed
vsat
(I have) shown
(r) vsad, vsat, vsade
(It is/they are) shown
vnta
(to) wait
Vnta!
Wait!
vntar
(I) wait
vntade
(I) waited
vntat
(I have) waited
(r) vntad, vntat, vntade
(It is/they are) expected
vrka
(to) seem/appear/act
Verka!
Act!
vrkar
(I) seem/act
vrkade
(I) seemed/acted
vrkat
(I have) seemed/acted
(r) [fr]vrkad, [fr]vrkat, [fr]vrkade
(It is/they are) forfeited
ppna
(to) open
ִppna!
Open!
ppnar
(I) open
ppnade
(I) opened
ppnat
(I have) opened
(r) ppnad, ppnat, ppnade
(It is/they are) opened

 

Verb group 2 (-er verbs)
Group 2 A

 

Infinitive Imperative Present Past Supine Past participle
behva
(to) need
Behv!
Need!
behver
(I) need
behvde
(I) needed
(har) behvt
(I have) needed
(r) behvd, behvt, behvda
(It is/they are) needed
flja
(to) follow
Flj (mig)!
Follow (me)!
fljer
(I) follow
fljde
(I) followed
(har) fljt
(I have) followed
(r) fljd, fljt, fljda
(It is/they are) followed
hra
(to) hear
Hr!
Hear!
hr
(I) hear
hrde
(I) heard
(har) hrt
(I have) heard
(r) hrd, hrt, hrda
(It is/they are) heard
knna
(to) feel, (to) know [someone]
Knn!
Feel (it)!
knner
(I) feel, know
knde
(I) felt, knew
(har) knt
(I have) felt, known
(r) knd, knt, knda
(It is/they are) felt, known
lva
(to) live
Lev!
Live!
lver
(I) live
lvde
(I) lived
(har) levt
(I have) lived
(r) [t]lvad, [t]lvat, [t]lvade
(It is/they are) decrepit
lra [sig]
(to) teach [reflexive: to learn]
Lr [dig]!
Teach [reflexive: Learn]!
lr [mig]
(I) teach [reflexive: (I) learn]
lrde [mig]
(I) taught [reflexive: (I) learned]
(har) lrt [mig]
(I have) taught [reflexive: (I) have learned]
(r) lrd, lrt, lrda
(It is/they are) taught/learned
stlla
(to) put
Stll (den dr)!
Put (it there)!
stller
(I) put
stllde
(I) put
(har) stllt
(I have) put
(r) stlld, stllt, stllda
(It is/they are) put

 

Verb group 2 (-er verbs)
Group 2 B

 

Infinitive Imperative Present Past Supine Past participle
frska
(to) try
Frsk!
Try!
frsker
(I) try
frskte
(I) tried
(har) frskt
(I have) tried
 
hjlpa
(to) help
Hjlp!
Help!
hjlper
(I) help
hjlpte
(I) helped
(har) hjlpt
(I have) helped
(r) hjlpt, hjlpt, hjlpta
(It is/they are) helped
kpa
(to) buy
Kp!
Buy!
kper
(I) buy
kpte
(I) bought
(har) kpt
(I have) bought
(r) kpt, kpt, kpta
(It is/they are) bought
lsa
(to) read
Ls!
Read!
lser
(I) read
lste
(I) read
(har) lst
(I have) read
(r) lst, lst, lsta
(It is/they are) read
ska
(to) seek
Sk!
Seek!
sker
(I) seek
skte
(I) sought
(har) skt
(I have) sought
(r) skt, skt, skta
(It is/they are) sought
tcka
(to) have an opinion about something, (to) think
Tyck!
Have an opinion (about something)!
tcker
(I) have an opinion (about something), (I) think
tckte
(I) had an opinion (about something), I thought
(har) tyckt
(I have) had an opinion (about something), (I have) thought
(r) mtckt, mtckt, mtckta
It is/they are) well-liked
tnka
(to) think
Tnk!
Think!
tnker
(I) think
tnkte
(I) thought
(har) tnkt
(I have) thought
(r) tnkt, tnkt, tnkta
(It is/they are) thought
ka
(to) go
k!
Go!
ker
(I) go
kte
(I) went
(har) kt
(I have) gone
 

 

Verb group 3 (-r verbs)

 

Infinitive Imperative Present Past Supine Past participle
bo
(to) live in (as in reside, dwell)
Bo!
Reside!
bor
(I) reside
bdde
(I) resided
bott
(I have) resided
(r) bebdd, bebtt, bebdda
(It is/they are) inhabited
tro
(to) believe, think
Tro!
Believe!
tror
(I) believe, think
trdde
(I) believed, thought
trott
(I have) believed, thought
(r) trodd, trott, trdda
(It is/they are) believed

 

Verb group 4 (irregular verbs)

 

Infinitive Imperative Present Past Supine Past participle
bli
(to) become
Bli!
(Become!)
blir
(I) become
blev
(I) became
(har) blivit
(I have) become
(r) blven, blvet, blvna
(It is/they are) become [rarely used]
bra
(to) carry
Br! br
(I) carry
bar
(I) carried
(har) brit
(I have) carried
(r) bren, bret, brna
(It is/they are) carried
dra
(to) draw, pull
Dra!
Draw! Pull!
drar
(I) draw, pull
drog
(I) drew, pulled
(har) drgit
(I have) drawn, pulled
(r) drgen, drget, drgna
(It is/they are) drawn, pulled
fnnas [passive form, but active meaning]
(to) exist, be
  finns
(it) exists, there is/are
fanns
(it) existed, there was/were
(har) fnnits
(it has) existed, there has/have been
(r) fnnen, fnnet, fnna
(It is/they are) found
frtstta
(to) continue
Frtstt!
Continue!
frtstter
(I) continue
frtstte
(I) continued
(har) frtstt
(I have) continued
(r) frtstt, frtstt, frtstta
(It is/they are) continued
f
(to) receive, be allowed to, have to
  fr
(I) receive, am allowed to, have to
fick
(I) received, was allowed to, had to
(har) ftt
(I have) received, have been allowed to, have had to
 
frst
(to) understand
Frst!
Understand!
frstr
(I) understand
frstd
(I) understood
(har) frsttt
(I have) understood
(r) frstdd, frsttt, frstdda
(It is/they are) understood
ge
(to) give
Ge!
Give!
ger
(I) give
gav
(I) gave
(har) gett, gvit
(I have) given
(r) gven, gvet, gvna
(It is/they are) given
g
(to) walk, leave
G!
Walk! Leave!
gr
(I) walk, leave
gick
(I) walked, left
(har) gtt
(I have) walked, left
(r) gngen, gnget, gngna
(It is/they are) gone by, past
gra
(to) do, make
Gr!
Do! Make!
gr
(I) do, make
gjrde
(I) did, made
(har) gjort
(I have) done, made
(r) gjord, gjort, gjrda
(It is/they are) done, made
ha
(to) have
Ha!
Have!
har
(I) have
hde
(I) hade
(har) haft
(I have) had
 
hlla
(to) hold, give [a speech]
Hll!
(Hold!)
hller
(I) hold
hll
(I) held
(har) hllit
(I have) hold
(r) hllen, hllet, hllna
(It is/they are) hold, given
kmma
(to) come
Kom!
Come!
kmmer
(I) come
kom
(I) came
(har) kmmit
(I have) come
(r) [vl]kmmen, [vl]kmmet, [vl]kmna
(It is/they are) welcome
knna
(to) be able to
  kan
(I) can
knde
(I) could
(har) knnat
(I have) been able to
 
lgga
(to) be lying down, be situated
Ligg!
Lie (down)!
lgger
(it) lies, is situated
lg
(it) lied, was situated
(har) lgat
(it has) been lying, been situated
(r) [fr]lgad, [fr]lgat, [fr]lgna
(It is/they are) antiquated
lta
(to) let/permit, sound
Lt!
Let!
lter
(I) let/permit, sound
lt
(I) let/permitted, sounded
(har) ltit
(I have) let/permitted, sounded
(r) [tll-]lten (tllten), [tll-]ltet, [tll-]ltna
(It is/they are) allowed
lgga
(to) put, lay
Lgg!
Put! Lay!
lgger
(I) put, lay
lde (colloquial: la)
(I) put, laid
(har) lagt
(I have) put, laid
(r) lagd, lagt, lgda
(It is/they are) put, laid
se
(to) see
Se!
See!
ser
(I) see
sg
(I) saw
(har) sett
(I have) seen
(r) sedd, sett, sdda
(It is/they are) seen
stta
(to) sit
Sitt!
Sit!
stter
(I) sit
satt
(I) sat
(har) sttit
(I have) been sitting
(r) [nd]stten, [nd]sttet, [nd]sttna
(It is/they are) saggin [only used about furniture]
skla [very rarely used]
(to) be going to
  ska, skall
(I) will, am going to
sklle
(I) was going to
   
skrva
(to) write
Skriv!
Write!
skrver
(I) write
skrev
(I) wrote
(har) skrvit
(I have) written
(r) skrven, skrvet, skrvna
(It is/they are) written
sl
(to) beat, hit
Sl!
Beat! Hit!
slr
(I) beat, hit
slog
(I) beat, hit
(har) slgit
(I have) beaten, hit
(r) slgen, slget, slgna
(It is/they are) beaten, hit
st
(to) stand
St!
Stand!
str
(I) stand
stod
(I) stood
(har) sttt
(I have) stood
(r) [pp]stnden, [pp]stndet, [pp]stndna
(It is/they are) resurrected
stta [sig]
(to) put [reflexive: to sit down]
Stt [dig]!
Put! [refl: Sit down!]
stter [mig]
(I) put [refl: (I) sit down]
stte [mig]
(I) put [refl: (I) sat down]
(har) satt [mig]
(I have) put [refl: (I have) seated myself]
(r) satt, satt, stta
(It is/they are) put
ta
(to) take
Ta!
Take!
tar
(I) take
tog
(I) took
(har) tgit
(I have) taken
(r) tgen, tget, tgna
(It is/they are) taken
vra
(to) be
Var!
Be!
r
(I) am
var
(I) was
(har) vrit
(I have) been
 
vta
(to) know
Vet!
Know!
vet
(I) know
visste
(I) knew
(har) vtat
(I have) known
 
vlja
(to) want, wish
(Vill!)
Want!
vill
(I) want, wish
vlle
(I) wanted, wished
(har) vlat
(I have) wanted, wished
 

 


Copyright Urban Sikeborg,
Stockholm 1997-1998.

Stockholm School of Economics, Box 6501, SE-113 83 Stockholm
Phone +46-8-736 90 00, Fax +46-8-31 81 86
This page was updated on 21 December 1998.